The Urban Life-Support Systems
М.: “Science” Publishing House
This monograph is written by Prof. Dr. Pupyrev, the Director General of “MosvodokanalNIIproject” JSC. The author dwells on the basics of the design of urban life-support systems, such as: water supply, wastewater disposal, waste management, the management of the parameters of a hydrographic network and ecological monitoring.
The book describes the general approaches and the methods for the analysis and design of the engineering infrastructure facilities and gives some examples of the development of specific technologies and devices. The impact of life-support systems on the quality of urban environment is estimated.
This monograph may be recommended to the specialists in the field of municipal economy and design of engineering systems, as well as to the students and post-graduate students specializing in the engineering protection of environment and the complex usage and protection of water resources.
The monograph has been prepared under the patronage of the Russian Municipal Academy.
The present-day life-support system of any megalopolis is a result of a spontaneous and, often, a headstrong development. Only very seldom these life-support systems are the results of a systematic and planned development. It is of crucial importance that urban engineering systems are based on the engineering experience of many generations, applying the methods of system analysis and the innovative technologies existing in science and industry. In some areas, such as water supply, wastewater disposal and landscape architecture, Russia takes a rightful place in the world; in some other fields (industrial processing of waste, complex water use and urban environment management) Russia is just breaking fresh ground. In Russia they began to publish such monographs just several years ago, as a result of repeated discussions of these topics at the conference named “The Challenges of Urban Environment Quality Management”, now an annual forum of specialists in the field of the engineering development and support of urban life-support systems.
The staff of “MosvodokanalNIIproject” JSC headed by the author of the Monograph, has been designing the urban life-support systems for 75 years. Based on our design work carried out for concrete engineering systems, a new scientific discipline has been formed with regard to the systematic analysis and synthesis of life-support systems.
The Monograph tackles different aspects of the development of scientific and technical programs in the field of municipal economy, details some technical and informational aspects of an urban life-support system and describes several specific engineering systems.
The first and the second chapters are dedicated to the development of the strategic aspects of the engineering services of such systems as water supply and waste management. The author characterizes modern cities and the structures of life-support systems; he describes typical engineering systems, their qualitative and quantitative characteristics and comfortable living standards; he determines the optimality criteria for engineering systems and gives some information obtained from the experience in design and construction. The following aspects are discussed: the system-wide aspects of the design of urban engineering systems and the strategy of their development; the condition and the prospects for the development of Russian water supply systems and the decentralized systems of urban waste management. Special attention is paid to the development of the principles for the integrated management of water use. The author analyses the impact of engineering systems on the quality of urban environment, the Moscow experience in the design of specific municipal systems, the prospects for their modernization and development. The chapter also describes the Federal Special-Purpose Program for the Provision of Russian Population with Potable Water.
The third chapter deals with the problems of water supply and wastewater disposal. The author discusses technical, organizational and economic aspects of water supply and describes the methods for urban water treatment plants design that improve the sanitary safety of water supply. He also indicates the future research trends in the field of water supply. The economic aspects of the introduction of European drinking water quality standards in Russia are studied.
The fourth chapter deals with the design of waste management systems. It describes the process and the results of the design of some specific waste management systems. Apart from that, it contains the principles and methods for the design of the systems for the management of waste of various compositions.
The fifth chapter describes the systems for urban run-off disposal and treatment, including the aspects of the surface run-off quality formation and the organization of surface run-off disposal and treatment in Moscow. The author analyses the following: the methods for urban zoning and for the design of water use systems; the structure and the content of the special-purpose complex program for the rehabilitation and of water bodies and small rivers in Moscow. The chapter also contains a detailed analysis of the rehabilitation of the elements of an urban hydrographic network and of its structure in general.
The sixth chapter describes the methods and the structure of a system for the removal and industrial-scale processing of snow from urban highways. The complex system of snow removal in Moscow is truly unique and unprecedented. It is highly appreciated both by Russian and foreign specialists. Some elements of the system, such as snow-melting chambers are successfully used in other Russian cities, such as, for example, Saint-Petersburg and Ufa.
The seventh chapter contains some information concerning the general approaches to the design of municipal and departmental systems of urban environment quality monitoring, including atmospheric air, water bodies and green zones. This material is based on the data obtained through the application of the ecological monitoring system of Moscow, the first phase of this system being developed under the guidance of the author.
The author of the monograph owes its publishing to the assistance of dozens of professionals specializing in the field of municipal economy and working for various organizations and agencies including the Russian Academy of Sciences and the Municipal Academy of Russia. Their knowledge, experience and skill are used for the design and construction of the life-support systems of Moscow, one of the most comfortable cities in the world.